Corneal surgery refers to a variety of procedures performed on the cornea—the clear, dome-shaped surface covering the front of the eye. These surgeries are aimed at correcting vision problems, treating diseases or injuries affecting the cornea, or restoring its clarity. Some common types of corneal surgery include:

Corneal Transplant (Penetrating Keratoplasty): This involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea. It's used to treat severe cases of damage, scarring, or thinning of the cornea.

Partial Thickness Corneal Transplant (Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty - DALK or Descemet's Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty - DSEK): These procedures replace only specific layers of the cornea, preserving the healthy parts while addressing issues like endothelial cell damage or anterior corneal damage.

Refractive Surgeries: Procedures like LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) or PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) reshape the cornea to correct refractive errors like nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

Corneal Cross-Linking: This procedure involves applying riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops and ultraviolet light to strengthen the cornea and halt the progression of conditions like keratoconus, where the cornea becomes progressively thinner and more cone-shaped.

Corneal Transplant Enhancement: Sometimes, after an initial corneal transplant, further surgeries may be needed to fine-tune the corneal shape or improve vision.