Cornea Transplant Surgery

Cornea Transplant Surgery in Lucknow

Cornea is the clear transparent structure present in the front of the eye. It allows rays of light to pass through it to reach the crystalline lens.

Microscopically, the cornea has 5 layers, Epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, Stroma, Descemet’s membrane, endothelium. The innermost layer, that is the endothelium, has the function of pumping water out of the remaining layers. The cornea is special in many ways. It has no blood supply except the peripheral 1-2 mm rim. This, in addition to the endothelial pump allows it to maintain its transparency. This also provides the cornea Immune privilege, which partially protects a corneal transplant from rejection. Secondly, only cells of the corneal epithelium can regenerate. The rest of the layers do not regenerate but lead to formation of opaque scars. The endothelial cells, however, can up-to a certain extent, expand and compensate for the function of other lost endothelial cells.

This progressive condition causes the cornea to thin and bulge outward into a cone shape, leading to distorted vision, astigmatism, and sensitivity to light.

These are genetic disorders that result in abnormal deposits or changes in the cornea, affecting its transparency and leading to vision problems. Examples include Fuchs’ dystrophy, lattice dystrophy, and others.

Abrasions are scratches or injuries to the cornea’s surface, while ulcers are open sores often caused by infections, leading to pain, redness, and impaired vision.

This is a growth of tissue on the cornea, typically appearing as a raised, wedge-shaped mass, which can cause irritation, redness, and astigmatism if it grows large enough to cover the visual axis.

Conditions like keratoconus and iatrogenic ectasia (occurring after certain eye surgeries like LASIK) lead to corneal thinning and distortion, impacting vision.

Scarring of the cornea can occur due to infections, injuries, or previous surgeries, leading to reduced vision and visual disturbances.

This occurs when the cornea retains excess fluid, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.

While not a direct disorder of the cornea, dry eye can impact the cornea by causing discomfort, irritation, and blurry vision due to inadequate tear production or poor tear quality.